Basic knowledge of five-axis CNC machining

Fri Apr 22 10:25:41 CST 2022

According to ISO regulations, when describing the motion of CNC machine tools, a right-handed rectangular coordinate system is used; the coordinate axis parallel to the main shaft is defined as the z axis, and the rotation coordinates around the x, y, and z axes are A, B, and C, respectively. The movement of each coordinate axis can be realized by the worktable or by the movement of the tool, but the direction is defined by the movement direction of the tool relative to the workpiece. Usually five-axis linkage refers to the linear interpolation movement of any 5 coordinates in x, y, z, A, B, and C.

Five-axis refers to the three moving axes of x, y, and z plus any two rotation axes. Compared with the common three-axis (x, y, z three degrees of freedom) machining, five-axis machining means that when machining parts with complex geometric shapes, the machining tools need to be able to be positioned and connected in five degrees of freedom.

The machine tools used in five-axis machining are often referred to as five-axis machine tools or five-axis machining centers. Five-axis machining is often used in the aerospace field to process airframe parts, turbine parts and impellers with free-form surfaces. The five-axis machine tool can process different sides of the workpiece without changing the position of the workpiece on the machine tool, which can greatly improve the processing efficiency of prismatic parts.